Healthy Eating Research. Strengthening WIC's Impact During and After the COVID-19 Pandemic. Research Brief. July 2020. https://healthyeatingresearch.org/research/strengthening-wics-impact-during-and-after-the-covid-19-pandemic/
This research brief focuses on how to strengthen WIC’s impact during and after COVID-19. The brief summarizes the evidence of WIC’s benefits and challenges the program and participants are facing due to COVID-19, and it addresses what additional actions are needed to support increases in WIC enrollment.
Johns Hopkins University Center for Humanitarian Health
This resource provides an overview of what peer-reviewed journal articles currently state on COVID-19, maternal and child health (including infants), and nutrition, specifically as it relates to Human Milk and Breastfeeding.
Maternal Death in Pregnancy due to COVID‐19
Cheng, S.O., Khan, S., & Alsafi, Z. Maternal Death in Pregnancy due to COVID‐19. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. July 2020. doi:10.1002/uog.22111
A review of changes in maternal mortality due to COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2) in pregnant women. Cheng and colleagues sought to find out whether COVID-19 had a lower risk of mortality in pregnant women when compared to MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV, they concluded that even though there were changes observed, it was still too soon to establish an accurate comparison.
Khalil, A., von Dadelszen, P., Draycott, T., Ugwumadu, A., O’Brien, P., & Magee, L. Change in the Incidence of Stillbirth and Preterm Delivery During the COVID-19 Pandemic. JAMA. July 2020. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.12746
JAMA study demonstrates an increase in stillbirth rates during the pandemic. The authors predict that this could either be a direct result of undetected COVID-19, since most cases in pregnant women are asymptomatic, or an indirect effect of COVID related factors.
Rafael A. Caparros-Gonzalez, & Fiona Alderdice. The COVID-19 Pandemic and Perinatal Mental Health. Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology. July 2020. doi: 10.1080/02646838.2020.1786910
Recent study assesses how potential stress from COVID-19 may have immediate and long term mental health effects on both mother and baby. It specifically discusses the importance of monitoring how social distancing and other measures may be reducing the feelings of social support, elevating maternal anxiety and stress, and having long lasting genetic effects on baby during gestation.
You Don't Have To Be Infected To Suffer: COVID-19 and Racial Disparities in Severe Maternal Morbidity and Mortality.
Howard Minkoff. You Don't Have To Be Infected To Suffer: COVID-19 and Racial Disparities in Severe Maternal Morbidity and Mortality. Am J Perinatol. June 2020. doi:10.1055/s-0040-1713852
This article explores other ways, besides direct viral infection, by which COVID-19 may impact maternal mortality in minority populations. It looks at ways in which COVID-19 has worsened the upstream factors that enable adverse maternal events, identifies opportunities for intervention, and calls for health providers to look for solutions to maternal mortality outside of their institutions.
Diane. L. Spatz. The COVID-19 pandemic: the role of childbirth educators in promoting and protecting breastfeeding. The Journal of Perinatal Education. June 2020. doi: 10.1891/J-PE-D-20-00024
Published in the journal of perinatal education, this article by Dr. Diane Spatz focuses on the important role of childbirth educators in ensuring that families receive appropriate evidence-based information about human milk and breastfeeding as a lifesaving medical intervention in the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic
International Comparison of Guidelines for Managing Neonates at the Early Phase of the SARS-CoV-2 Pandemic
Anna Lavizzari, Claus Klingenberg, Jochen Profit, John A. F. Zupancic, Alexis S. Davis, Fabio Mosca, Eleanor J. Molloy, & Charles C. Roehr, International comparison of guidelines for managing neonates at the early phase of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Pediatric Research. June 2020. doi:10.1038/s41390-020-0976-5
At the rapid onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, all countries presented protocols in place for managing infants at risk of COVID-19, with a certain degree of variations among regions. The article presents a detailed review of ad hoc guidelines and highlight similarities and differences. The authors provide a broad overview of currently applied recommendations highlighting the need for international context-relevant coordination.
Yunzhu Dong , Xiangyang Chi , Hai Huang , Liangliang Sun , Mengyao Zhang , Wei-Fen Xie & Wei Chen. Antibodies in the breast milk of a maternal woman with COVID-19. Emerging Microbes & Infections. June 2020. doi: 10.1080/22221751.2020.1780952
The emerging microbes and infection journal published an article which states that antibodies were detected in the breastmilk of a mother who was positive tested for SARS-CoV-2 in throat swabs but negative tested in other body fluids.
Association Between Mode of Delivery Among Pregnant Women With COVID-19 and Maternal and Neonatal Outcomes in Spain
Martínez-Perez O, Vouga M, Cruz Melguizo S, et al. Association Between Mode of Delivery Among Pregnant Women With COVID-19 and Maternal and Neonatal Outcomes in Spain. JAMA. June 2020. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.10125
A recent JAMA study of 82 COVID positive women giving birth in Spain found that among the 95% who presented with mild symptoms, all 53% who delivered vaginally had excellent outcomes, and 13.5% who had cesarean births had severe maternal outcomes such as admission to the ICU. Even after adjusting for confounders, cesareans were independently associated with risk of clinical deterioration. 4.2% of newborns initially tested positive but repeat testing at 48 hours was negative and none developed COVID-19 symptoms.
Epidemiology, Clinical Features, and Disease Severity in Patients With Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in a Children’s Hospital in New York City, New York
Zachariah P, Johnson CL, Halabi KC, et al. Epidemiology, Clinical Features, and Disease Severity in Patients With Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in a Children’s Hospital in New York City, New York. JAMA Pediatr. June 2020. doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2020.2430
A new study published in JAMA pediatrics examines symptoms of 50 children hospitalized in NYC with COVID-19. Not all children had respiratory symptoms. Disease was least severe in infants.
McCoy, M. B., & Heggie, P. (2020). In-hospital formula feeding and breastfeeding duration. Pediatrics. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2019-2946
New study from the American Academy of Pediatrics links in-hospital formula to earlier weaning from breastfeeding. This study adds to the evidence that infants do not breastfeed as long when they are supplemented in the hospital. Additional commentary by Drs. Lori Feldman-Winter and Ann Kellams available here.
Arora KS, Mauch JT, Gibson KS. Labor and Delivery Visitor Policies During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Balancing Risks and Benefits. JAMA. May 2020; 323(24):2468–2469. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.7563
A commentary on the necessity of balancing risks and benefits in implementing a labor and delivery unit visitor policy in the face of uncertain and evolving information
Tomori, C., Gribble, K., Palmquist, A. E., Ververs, M. T., & Gross, M. S. (2020). When Separation is not the Answer: Breastfeeding Mothers and Infants affected by COVID‐19. Maternal & Child Nutrition. https://doi.org/10.1111/mcn.13033
This paper from the Journal of Maternal and Child Nutrition spells out the problems that arise around separating moms and babies during the COVID 19 pandemic.
Lori Feldman-Winter, Ann Kellams, Sigal Peter-Wohl, Julie Scott Taylor, Kimberly G. Lee, Mary J. Terrell, Lawrence Noble, Angela R. Maynor, Joan Younger Meek & Alison M. Stuebe. Pediatrics April 2020, 145 (4) e20183696; DOI: https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2018-3696
This review provides new evidence from the past 10 years on exclusive breastfeeding, with a focus on the early days of breastfeeding in healthy newborns ≥35 weeks’ gestation managed in the routine postpartum unit. With this evidence-based paper, the authors aim to provide clinical guidance in identifying medical indications for early supplementation and inform best practices for both birthing facilities and providers.
Salvatori G, De Rose DU, Concato C, Alario D, Olivini N, Dotta A, Campana A. Managing COVID-19-Positive Maternal–Infant Dyads: An Italian Experience. Mary Ann Liebert Inc. Published online May 13, 2020. doi:10.1089/bfm.2020.0095
This report documents the experience of providers with managing the positive mothers and babies during the viral outbreak in Italy.
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Infection in Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review.
Castagnoli R, Votto M, Licari A, Brambilla I, Bruno R, Perlini S, Rovida F, Baldanti F, Marseglia GL. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Infection in Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review. JAMA Pediatrics. Published online April 22, 2020. doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2020.1467
The systematic review that evaluates currently reported pediatric cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection. It presents findings, from an analysis of 18 studies, on the clinical features of pediatric patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).
Sutton D, Fuchs K, D’Alton M, Goffman D. Universal Screening for SARS-CoV-2 in Women Admitted for Delivery. New England Journal of Medicine. Published online 2020 Apr 13. doi:10.1056/NEJMc2009316
This article details the findings from universal screening to detect SARS-CoV-2 in women admitted for delivery in NYC between March 22 - April 4, 2020. Findings show that 4 women were symptomatic,13.7% of 211 asymptomatic women were positive, and 3 women developed some symptoms during hospital stay.
Rasmussen SA, Thompson LA. Coronavirus Disease 2019 and Children: What Pediatric Health Care Clinicians Need to Know. JAMA Pediatr. Published online April 03, 2020. doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2020.1224
Based on existing data, this article presents detailed information on the transmission, symptoms, prevalence, and important considerations for the management of COVID-19 in children.
Marinelli, K. A. (2020). International Perspectives Concerning Donor Milk Banking During the SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Pandemic. Journal of Human Lactation. https://doi.org/10.1177/0890334420917661
A portion of this article provides a situational analysis of donor milk banking in light of COVID-19 using reports from China, Italy, and the United States.
Neonatal Early-Onset Infection With SARS-CoV-2 in 33 Neonates Born to Mothers With COVID-19 in Wuhan, China
Zeng L, Xia S, Yuan W, et al. Neonatal Early-Onset Infection With SARS-CoV-2 in 33 Neonates Born to Mothers With COVID-19 in Wuhan, China. JAMA Pediatr. Published online March 26, 2020. doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2020.0878
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread rapidly across the world. With the sharp increase in the number of infections, the number of pregnant women and children with COVID-19 is also on the rise. This cohort study explores early onset infection in all neonates born to mothers with COVID-19 were recruited from Wuhan Children's Hospital, in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China.
Baud D, Giannoni E, Pomar L, Qi X, Nielsen-Saines K, Musso D, Favre G. COVID-19 in Pregnant Women-Author's Reply. The Lancet. Published online March 17, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30192-4
This article in the Lancet was written in response to concerns of about the previous guidelines for pregnant women with suspected severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. It includes recommendations on cord clamping, breastfeeding, and the necessary precautions for maternal child care during COVID-19.
Liu W, Wang Q, Zhang Q, Chen L, Chen J, Zhang B, Lu Y, Wang S, Xia L, Huang L, Wang K, Liang L, Zhang Y, Turtle L, Lissauer D, Lan K, Feng L, Yu H, Liu Y, Sun Z. Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) During Pregnancy: A Case Series. Published online February 25, 2020. 2020020373.
This case study describes the clinical characteristics of COVID-19 in pregnancy and their newborn infant, and explores whether the SARS-CoV-2 can be intrauterine vertically transmitted. The research concludes that there is no evidence to suggest the potential risk of intrauterine vertical transmission in the case series and further in-depth study is needed.