Dhir, S.K., Kumar, J., Meena, J., & Kumar, P. Clinical Features and Outcome of SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Neonates: A Systematic Review. J Trop Pediatr. August 2020. doi:10.1093/tropej/fmaa059
This systematic review aimed to synthesize the currently available literature on various modes of transmission, clinical features, and outcomes of SARS-CoV-2 infection in neonates. The review suggests that the risk of SARSCoV-2 infections in neonates is extremely low, and unlike children, most COVID positive neonates were symptomatic and required intensive care
Telehealth Uptake into Prenatal Care and Provider Attitudes during the COVID-19 Pandemic in New York City: A Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis
Madden, N., Emeruwa, U.N., Friedman, A.M., et al. Telehealth Uptake into Prenatal Care and Provider Attitudes during the COVID-19 Pandemic in New York City: A Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis. Am J Perinatol. August 2020. doi:10.1055/s-0040-1712939
Madden et al. sought to determine to what degree prenatal care was able to be transitioned to telehealth at two affiliated hospitals in New York City during the novel COVID-19 pandemic, and to determine providers' experience with this transition.
Moscola, J., Sembajwe, G., Jarrett, M., et al. Prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 Antibodies in Health Care Personnel in the New York City Area. JAMA. August 2020. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.14765
Considering the high exposure risk of healthcare personnel (HCP), JAMA research article investigated the prevalence of COVID-19 antibodies in Health Care Personnel in the New York City Area. They found a 13.7% prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in the study cohort and concluded that providing HCP with data about their COVID exposure is important so they can protect themselves, their patients, their colleagues, and their families.
Busch-Hallen, J., Walters, D., Rowe, S., Chowdhury, A., & Arabi, M. Impact of COVID-19 on Maternal and Child Health. The Lancet. August 2020. doi.org/10.1016/S2214-109X(20)30327-2
Lancet article discusses the impact of separating newborns from mothers and discouraging breastfeeding because of unfounded fears of transmission of COVID-19 through breast milk. This analysis highlights
the need for continued support, promotion and protection of breastfeeding by revealing substantial morbidity and mortality repercussions from pandemic related disruptions to breastfeeding
the need for continued support, promotion and protection of breastfeeding by revealing substantial morbidity and mortality repercussions from pandemic related disruptions to breastfeeding
Erwin, P.C., & Braund, W.E. A Public Health Lens on Rural Health. AJPH. August 2020. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2020.305863
American Journal of Public Health (AJPH) published a collection of scholarly articles which examine rural health issues through a public health lens. The COVID-19 global pandemic has exposed the constraints and limitations of the nation’s public health infrastructure and heightened awareness of the importance of, and need for, prevention, protection, equity, and system change.
Palmquist, A.E.L., Asiodu, I.V., & Quinn, E.A.. The COVID-19 Liquid Gold Rush: Critical Perspectives of Human Milk and SARS-CoV-2 Infection. American Journal of Human Biology. August 2020. doi.org/10.1002/ijgo.13333
Palmquist et al. argue that studying human milk outside of human lived experiences is not only extremely limited but potentially harmful to vulnerable populations. They assert that the science used to support perinatal separation policies for COVID‐19, including strongly advising against breastfeeding or provision of human milk with SARS‐CoV‐2 infection, are disproportionately harming BIPOC.
Bhaskar, M.E., & Arun, S. SARS-CoV-2 Infection Among Community Health Workers in India Before and After Use of Face Shields. JAMA. August 2020. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.15586
JAMA study found that face shields were effective in protecting community health workers in India from becoming infected with SARS-CoV- 2. Adding face shields to their personal protective equipment spared 50 uninfected health workers from becoming infected, despite interactions with 2682 infected persons in the line of duty.
Vertical transmission risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the third trimester: a systematic scoping review.
Thomas, P., Alexander, P. E., Ahmed, U., Elderhorst, E.,... & Alhazzani, W. Vertical transmission risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the third trimester: a systematic scoping review. The Journal of Maternal-Fetal & Neonatal Medicine. August 2020. doi.org/10.1080/14767058.2020.1786055
This systematic scoping review article summarizes the current evidence on the vertical transmission potential in the third trimester and its effects on the neonate. 18 studies were reviewed, consisting of 157 mothers and 160 neonates, and the findings suggest that no vertical transmission of COVID-19 occurred
Iida, M., & Tanaka, M. Screening maternity populations during the COVID‐19 pandemic. BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology. August 2020. doi:10.1111/1471- 0528.16439
Research commentary highlights the challenges that asymptomatic transmission of SARS-CoV-2 poses to containing the virus during childbirth. The authors also discussed the elevated risk of cross-infection between laboring women and midwives and advocate for the COVID-19 testing of pregnant women to reduce risk of transmission and provide optimal medical management to mothers and their newborns
Chambers C, Krogstad P, Bertrand K, et al. Evaluation for SARS-CoV-2 in Breast Milk From 18 Infected Women. JAMA. August 2020. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.15580
This research letter provides evidence supporting the unlikelihood of transmission of SARS-CoV-2 from mother to infant through breast milk, highlighting the safety of breast milk and donor milk among SARS-CoV-2-infected women. Out of the 64 breast milk samples from 18 SARS-CoV-2-infected women in the US analyzed in this study, only one tested positive for presence of viral RNA, and none tested positive for presence of active virus.
Davanzo, R., Merewood, A., & Manzoni, P. (2020). Skin-to-Skin Contact at Birth in the COVID-19 Era: In Need of Help! American Journal of Perinatology. August 2020. doi: 10.1055/s-0040-1714255
Editorial stresses the importance of skin-to-skin contact in the immediate postpartum period in the COVID-19 era, given the numerous benefits of the practice for both infant and mother.
Infectious Diseases Diagnoses of Children Admitted with Symptoms of Coronavirus Disease 2019 During an Outbreak in New York City
Acker, K. P., Schertz, K., Abramson, E. L., DeLaMora, P., Salvatore, C. M., & Han, J.-Y. Infectious Diseases Diagnoses of Children Admitted with Symptoms of Coronavirus Disease 2019 During an Outbreak in New York City. Clinical Pediatrics. July 2020. doi.org/10.1177/0009922820944399
Retrospective study of 42 children (median age of 2 years) sought to determine how frequently children admitted with COVID-19 like symptoms actually have the virus. The results suggest that most children admitted with COVID-19-like symptoms did not have SARS-CoV-2 infection, even during the outbreak in New York.
Review of Guidelines and Recommendations from 17 Countries Highlights the Challenges that Clinicians Face Caring for Neonates Born to Mothers with COVID‐19.
Yeo, K. T., Oei, J. L., De Luca, D., Schmölzer, G. M., Guaran, R., ... & Kusuda, S. Review of Guidelines and Recommendations from 17 Countries Highlights the Challenges that Clinicians Face Caring for Neonates Born to Mothers with COVID‐19. Acta Paediatrica. July 2020. https://doi.org/10.1111/apa.15495
A systematic review of guidelines and recommendations from 17 countries for managing neonates born to mothers with COVID-19, and how applicable they were to the evolving pandemic.
Onwuzurike, C., Diouf, K., Meadows, A. R., & Nour, N. M. Racial and ethnic disparities in severity of COVID‐19 disease in pregnancy in the United States. International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics. July 2020. doi.org/10.1002/ijgo.13333
An academic hospital based obstetrics practice in Boston found racial disparities in cases of COVID-19 among non-Hispanic Black and Hispanic women, and disproportionate adverse outcomes including hospitalization, ICU care, and mechanical ventilation for these populations. The authors conclude that these findings reflect the health consequences of the social, environmental, and structural effects of racism in the United States.
Perinatal COVID-19 Infection Prevention: Infographics for Patients and Providers
Lakshminrusimha, S., Sridhar, A., Guerra, A.A.H., Higgins, R.D., & Saade, G. Perinatal COVID-19 Infection Prevention: Infographics for Patients and Providers. Am J Perinatol. July 2020. doi:10.1055/s-0040-1714387
Pulling from established national guidelines on obstetric care, the authors developed patient-centered infographics that highlight major consideration for pregnancy and newborn care during the COVID-19 pandemic. They are available in English and Spanish on the journal's website, designed for display in clinician's offices, delivery rooms, or nurseries, and can be used to create informative brochures for patients/parents.
Marshall, J., Kihlström, L., Buro, A., ... & Hood, K. Statewide Implementation of Virtual Perinatal Home Visiting During COVID-19. Matern Child Health J. July 2020. doi:10.1007/s10995-020-02982-8
This paper describes the implementation of virtual perinatal home visiting in high-risk communities and staff adaptations to working remotely in Florida, USA. The authors discuss factors to consider in implementing effective virtual home visits and they conclude that these visits seem to be feasible and to provide an essential connection to support families.
Pregnancy and postpartum outcomes in a universally tested population for SARS-CoV-2 in New York City: A prospective cohort study
Prabhu, M., Cagino, K., Matthews, K. C., ... & Riley, L.E. Pregnancy and postpartum outcomes in a universally tested population for SARS-CoV-2 in New York City: A prospective cohort study. BJOG. July 2020. doi.org/10.1111/1471-0528.16403
Prahbu et al. assessed the differences in birth outcomes between pregnant women with and without COVID-19 in three NY hospitals. They reported an increased cesarean delivery rate and frequency of postpartum maternal complications among pregnant women with COVID-19.
Healthy Eating Research. Strengthening WIC's Impact During and After the COVID-19 Pandemic. Research Brief. July 2020. https://healthyeatingresearch.org/research/strengthening-wics-impact-during-and-after-the-covid-19-pandemic/
This research brief focuses on how to strengthen WIC’s impact during and after COVID-19. The brief summarizes the evidence of WIC’s benefits and challenges the program and participants are facing due to COVID-19, and it addresses what additional actions are needed to support increases in WIC enrollment.
Johns Hopkins University Center for Humanitarian Health
This resource provides an overview of what peer-reviewed journal articles currently state on COVID-19, maternal and child health (including infants), and nutrition, specifically as it relates to Human Milk and Breastfeeding.
Maternal Death in Pregnancy due to COVID‐19
Cheng, S.O., Khan, S., & Alsafi, Z. Maternal Death in Pregnancy due to COVID‐19. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. July 2020. doi:10.1002/uog.22111
A review of changes in maternal mortality due to COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2) in pregnant women. Cheng and colleagues sought to find out whether COVID-19 had a lower risk of mortality in pregnant women when compared to MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV, they concluded that even though there were changes observed, it was still too soon to establish an accurate comparison.
Khalil, A., von Dadelszen, P., Draycott, T., Ugwumadu, A., O’Brien, P., & Magee, L. Change in the Incidence of Stillbirth and Preterm Delivery During the COVID-19 Pandemic. JAMA. July 2020. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.12746
JAMA study demonstrates an increase in stillbirth rates during the pandemic. The authors predict that this could either be a direct result of undetected COVID-19, since most cases in pregnant women are asymptomatic, or an indirect effect of COVID related factors.
McCoy, M. B., & Heggie, P. In-hospital formula feeding and breastfeeding duration. Pediatrics. July 2020. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2019-2946
New study from the American Academy of Pediatrics links in-hospital formula to earlier weaning from breastfeeding. This study adds to the evidence that infants do not breastfeed as long when they are supplemented in the hospital. Additional commentary by Drs. Lori Feldman-Winter and Ann Kellams available here.
Rafael A. Caparros-Gonzalez, & Fiona Alderdice. The COVID-19 Pandemic and Perinatal Mental Health. Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology. July 2020. doi: 10.1080/02646838.2020.1786910
Recent study assesses how potential stress from COVID-19 may have immediate and long term mental health effects on both mother and baby. It specifically discusses the importance of monitoring how social distancing and other measures may be reducing the feelings of social support, elevating maternal anxiety and stress, and having long lasting genetic effects on baby during gestation.
You Don't Have To Be Infected To Suffer: COVID-19 and Racial Disparities in Severe Maternal Morbidity and Mortality.
Howard Minkoff. You Don't Have To Be Infected To Suffer: COVID-19 and Racial Disparities in Severe Maternal Morbidity and Mortality. Am J Perinatol. June 2020. doi:10.1055/s-0040-1713852
This article explores other ways, besides direct viral infection, by which COVID-19 may impact maternal mortality in minority populations. It looks at ways in which COVID-19 has worsened the upstream factors that enable adverse maternal events, identifies opportunities for intervention, and calls for health providers to look for solutions to maternal mortality outside of their institutions.
Diane. L. Spatz. The COVID-19 pandemic: the role of childbirth educators in promoting and protecting breastfeeding. The Journal of Perinatal Education. June 2020. doi: 10.1891/J-PE-D-20-00024
Published in the journal of perinatal education, this article by Dr. Diane Spatz focuses on the important role of childbirth educators in ensuring that families receive appropriate evidence-based information about human milk and breastfeeding as a lifesaving medical intervention in the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic
International Comparison of Guidelines for Managing Neonates at the Early Phase of the SARS-CoV-2 Pandemic
Anna Lavizzari, Claus Klingenberg, Jochen Profit, John A. F. Zupancic, Alexis S. Davis, Fabio Mosca, Eleanor J. Molloy, & Charles C. Roehr, International comparison of guidelines for managing neonates at the early phase of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Pediatric Research. June 2020. doi:10.1038/s41390-020-0976-5
At the rapid onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, all countries presented protocols in place for managing infants at risk of COVID-19, with a certain degree of variations among regions. The article presents a detailed review of ad hoc guidelines and highlight similarities and differences. The authors provide a broad overview of currently applied recommendations highlighting the need for international context-relevant coordination.
Yunzhu Dong , Xiangyang Chi , Hai Huang , Liangliang Sun , Mengyao Zhang , Wei-Fen Xie & Wei Chen. Antibodies in the breast milk of a maternal woman with COVID-19. Emerging Microbes & Infections. June 2020. doi: 10.1080/22221751.2020.1780952
The emerging microbes and infection journal published an article which states that antibodies were detected in the breastmilk of a mother who was positive tested for SARS-CoV-2 in throat swabs but negative tested in other body fluids.
Association Between Mode of Delivery Among Pregnant Women With COVID-19 and Maternal and Neonatal Outcomes in Spain
Martínez-Perez O, Vouga M, Cruz Melguizo S, et al. Association Between Mode of Delivery Among Pregnant Women With COVID-19 and Maternal and Neonatal Outcomes in Spain. JAMA. June 2020. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.10125
A recent JAMA study of 82 COVID positive women giving birth in Spain found that among the 95% who presented with mild symptoms, all 53% who delivered vaginally had excellent outcomes, and 13.5% who had cesarean births had severe maternal outcomes such as admission to the ICU. Even after adjusting for confounders, cesareans were independently associated with risk of clinical deterioration. 4.2% of newborns initially tested positive but repeat testing at 48 hours was negative and none developed COVID-19 symptoms.
Epidemiology, Clinical Features, and Disease Severity in Patients With Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in a Children’s Hospital in New York City, New York
Zachariah P, Johnson CL, Halabi KC, et al. Epidemiology, Clinical Features, and Disease Severity in Patients With Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in a Children’s Hospital in New York City, New York. JAMA Pediatr. June 2020. doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2020.2430
A new study published in JAMA pediatrics examines symptoms of 50 children hospitalized in NYC with COVID-19. Not all children had respiratory symptoms. Disease was least severe in infants.
Arora KS, Mauch JT, Gibson KS. Labor and Delivery Visitor Policies During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Balancing Risks and Benefits. JAMA. May 2020; 323(24):2468–2469. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.7563
A commentary on the necessity of balancing risks and benefits in implementing a labor and delivery unit visitor policy in the face of uncertain and evolving information
Tomori, C., Gribble, K., Palmquist, A. E., Ververs, M. T., & Gross, M. S. When Separation is not the Answer: Breastfeeding Mothers and Infants affected by COVID‐19. Maternal & Child Nutrition. May 2020. https://doi.org/10.1111/mcn.13033
This paper from the Journal of Maternal and Child Nutrition spells out the problems that arise around separating moms and babies during the COVID 19 pandemic.
Salvatori G, De Rose DU, Concato C, Alario D, Olivini N, Dotta A, Campana A. Managing COVID-19-Positive Maternal–Infant Dyads: An Italian Experience. Mary Ann Liebert Inc. Published online May 13, 2020. doi:10.1089/bfm.2020.0095
This report documents the experience of providers with managing the positive mothers and babies during the viral outbreak in Italy.
Lori Feldman-Winter, Ann Kellams, Sigal Peter-Wohl, Julie Scott Taylor, Kimberly G. Lee, Mary J. Terrell, Lawrence Noble, Angela R. Maynor, Joan Younger Meek & Alison M. Stuebe. Pediatrics April 2020, 145 (4) e20183696; DOI: https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2018-3696
This review provides new evidence from the past 10 years on exclusive breastfeeding, with a focus on the early days of breastfeeding in healthy newborns ≥35 weeks’ gestation managed in the routine postpartum unit. With this evidence-based paper, the authors aim to provide clinical guidance in identifying medical indications for early supplementation and inform best practices for both birthing facilities and providers.
Rasmussen, S.A & Thompson, L.A. (2020). Coronavirus Disease 2019 and Children: What Pediatric Health Care Clinicians Need to Know. JAMA Pediatr. April 2020. doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2020.1224
JAMA viewpoint article provides recommendations on ways that pediatric healthcare clinicians can help to make accommodations and prep their offices, facilities, and communities for increased COVID-19 disease rate.
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Infection in Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review.
Castagnoli R, Votto M, Licari A, Brambilla I, Bruno R, Perlini S, Rovida F, Baldanti F, Marseglia GL. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Infection in Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review. JAMA Pediatrics. Published online April 22, 2020. doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2020.1467
The systematic review that evaluates currently reported pediatric cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection. It presents findings, from an analysis of 18 studies, on the clinical features of pediatric patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).
Sutton D, Fuchs K, D’Alton M, Goffman D. Universal Screening for SARS-CoV-2 in Women Admitted for Delivery. New England Journal of Medicine. Published online 2020 Apr 13. doi:10.1056/NEJMc2009316
This article details the findings from universal screening to detect SARS-CoV-2 in women admitted for delivery in NYC between March 22 - April 4, 2020. Findings show that 4 women were symptomatic,13.7% of 211 asymptomatic women were positive, and 3 women developed some symptoms during hospital stay.
Rasmussen SA, Thompson LA. Coronavirus Disease 2019 and Children: What Pediatric Health Care Clinicians Need to Know. JAMA Pediatr. Published online April 03, 2020. doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2020.1224
Based on existing data, this article presents detailed information on the transmission, symptoms, prevalence, and important considerations for the management of COVID-19 in children.
Marinelli, K. A. (2020). International Perspectives Concerning Donor Milk Banking During the SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Pandemic. Journal of Human Lactation. https://doi.org/10.1177/0890334420917661
A portion of this article provides a situational analysis of donor milk banking in light of COVID-19 using reports from China, Italy, and the United States.
Neonatal Early-Onset Infection With SARS-CoV-2 in 33 Neonates Born to Mothers With COVID-19 in Wuhan, China
Zeng L, Xia S, Yuan W, et al. Neonatal Early-Onset Infection With SARS-CoV-2 in 33 Neonates Born to Mothers With COVID-19 in Wuhan, China. JAMA Pediatr. Published online March 26, 2020. doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2020.0878
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread rapidly across the world. With the sharp increase in the number of infections, the number of pregnant women and children with COVID-19 is also on the rise. This cohort study explores early onset infection in all neonates born to mothers with COVID-19 were recruited from Wuhan Children's Hospital, in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China.
Baud D, Giannoni E, Pomar L, Qi X, Nielsen-Saines K, Musso D, Favre G. COVID-19 in Pregnant Women-Author's Reply. The Lancet. Published online March 17, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30192-4
This article in the Lancet was written in response to concerns of about the previous guidelines for pregnant women with suspected severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. It includes recommendations on cord clamping, breastfeeding, and the necessary precautions for maternal child care during COVID-19.
Liu W, Wang Q, Zhang Q, Chen L, Chen J, Zhang B, Lu Y, Wang S, Xia L, Huang L, Wang K, Liang L, Zhang Y, Turtle L, Lissauer D, Lan K, Feng L, Yu H, Liu Y, Sun Z. Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) During Pregnancy: A Case Series. Published online February 25, 2020. 2020020373.
This case study describes the clinical characteristics of COVID-19 in pregnancy and their newborn infant, and explores whether the SARS-CoV-2 can be intrauterine vertically transmitted. The research concludes that there is no evidence to suggest the potential risk of intrauterine vertical transmission in the case series and further in-depth study is needed.